The 2017 law focused on foreign universities but singled out the Central European University (CEU) founded by George Soros. The oldest remaining complete text in Hungarian language is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) (1192–1195), a translation of a Latin sermon. Another chronicle is the Képes krónika (Illustrated Chronicle), which was written for Louis the Great.  The Horthy government's complicity in the Holocaust remains a point of controversy and contention. Kristó Gyula – Barta János – Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, Laszlo Kontler, "A History of Hungary" p. 145, Peter N Stearns, The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern world, Volume 4, Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 64, Laszlo Peter, Martyn C. Rady, Peter A. Sherwood: Lajos Kossuth sas word...: papers delivered on the occasion of the bicentenary of Kossuth's birth (page 101), Alfred de Zayas "Raoul Wallenberg" in Dinah Shelton Encyclopedia of Genocide (Macmillan Reference 2005, vol. Hungary is well known for its spa culture and is home to numerous medicinal spas, which attract "spa tourism". These include the very eastern stretch of the Alps, Alpokalja, in the west of the country, the Transdanubian Mountains in the central region of Transdanubia, and the Mecsek Mountains and Villány Mountains in the south. Hungary is ranked sixth in an environmental protection index by GW/CAN.. These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot (barack) and cherry (cseresznye). The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. During the era of communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989), a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. Other renowned composers are Dohnányi, Franz Schmidt, Zoltán Kodály, Gabriel von Wayditch, Rudolf Wagner-Régeny, László Lajtha, Franz Lehár, Imre Kálmán, Sándor Veress and Rózsa. Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles and stoneware. Hungary's population was 9,937,628 according to the 2011 census, making it the fifth most populous country in Central and Eastern Europe and medium-sized member state of the European Union. Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ] (listen)) is a country in Central Europe. Population density stands at 107 inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about two times higher than the world average. In 889, attacks by a newly arrived Turkic people called the Pechenegs had driven the Magyars and their confederates to the western extremities of the steppes, where they were living when Arnulf’s invitation arrived. Many people still follow the tradition, although younger people often disavow it, citing that the vow was only meant to last 150 years. Prince Árpád was their leader at the time; he also established the first royal house of the country, the Árpád-house. BUDAPEST, Hungary (AP) — Some 70,000 people rallied in Budapest Sunday in support of a local university founded by American billionaire George Soros that is seen as a target for Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban's illiberal policies. The second golden age had begun. As a NATO member, Hungary was involved in the Yugoslav Wars. In addition to the over 600,000 Hungarian Jews killed, as many as 280,000 other Hungarians were raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labor by Czechoslovaks, Soviet Red Army troops, and Yugoslavs.. During World War I, out of the eight million men mobilized by Austro Hungarian Empire, over one million died.  There are considerable health disparities between the western and eastern parts of Hungary; heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and suicide is prevalent in the mostly agricultural and low-income Great Plain region in the east, but infrequent in the high-income, middle class areas of Western Transdanubia and Central Hungary. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri. Péter Szijjártó, the Hungarian foreign minister, described the vote as "petty revenge" which had been provoked by Hungary's tough anti-migration policies. In the mid-19th century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. The new government worked quickly to normalize foreign relations while turning a blind eye to a White Terror that swept through the countryside; extrajudicial killings of suspected communists and Jews lasted well into 1920. , Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of styles: the main products of the country are elegant and full-bodied dry whites with good acidity, although complex sweet whites (Tokaj), elegant (Eger) and full-bodied robust reds (Villány and Szekszárd). “Hungary’s university reform is unlawful, EU top court says,” Reuters, October 6, 2020: BRUSSELS (Reuters) – The European Union’s top court said on Tuesday that Hungary’s reform of higher education rules, which forced a university founded by George Soros to move most of its activities out of the country, was in breach of EU law. The violence nonetheless continued as revolutionary militias sprung up against the Soviet Army and the ÁVH; the roughly 3,000-strong resistance fought Soviet tanks using Molotov cocktails and machine-pistols. Chess is also a popular and successful sport in Hungary, the Hungarian players are the 10th most powerful overall on the ranking of World Chess Federation. The Hungarian political system operates under a framework reformed in 2012; this constitutional document is the Fundamental Law of Hungary. According to Ibn Rustah, the Hungarian tribes were familiar with wine-making long time before the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin.  Besides this Hungary has a large portion of specialised small and medium enterprise, for example a significant number of automotive suppliers and technology start ups among others. With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in 1541, Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. All clan members were free, but the community included slaves taken in battle or in raids. The side of that era has the second all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world, with 2166, and one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games spanning more than four years..  Deaths from accidents dropped from 8,760 in 1990 to 3,654 in 2013; the number of suicides has declined precipitously from 4,911 in 1983 to 2,093 in 2013 (21.1 per 100,000 people), the lowest since 1956. The most powerful ruler of the Hunnic Empire was Attila the Hun (434–453) who later became a central figure in Hungarian mythology. Hungarian law is codified and based on German law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. The top university, founded in 1990, says that a new draft piece of legislation on higher education - tabled on Tuesday evening (28 March) by the government of Viktor Orban - is "discriminatory" and "targets" the Central European Univeristy (CEU) to force them out of Hungary. Only after six centuries of independent statehood (896–1526) did Hungary become part of two other political entities: the Habsburg and Ottoman empires. The Hungarian Kuruc army, although taking over most of the country, lost the main battle at Trencsén (1708).  During World War II, the Hungarian Second Army was heavily depleted fighting on the banks of the Don River in December 1942 during the Battle for Stalingrad. In 892 the Carolingian emperor, Arnulf, attempting to assert his authority over the Moravian duke Svatopluk, called in the help of the Magyars, whose early homes had been on the upper waters of the Volga and Kama rivers. 7. Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June 1958. , At the European elections in May 2019, Viktor Orbán's Fidesz Party secured another a sweeping victory, receiving more than 50 % of the votes. His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background. The current state, the Third Hungarian Republic, was formed in 1989 as a successor to the Hungarian People's Republic. In the 560s, the Avars founded the Avar Khaganate, a state that maintained supremacy in the region for more than two centuries. The body is divided into county police departments which are also divided into regional and town police departments.  Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was partially occupied by the Ottoman Empire (1541–1699).  Many freethinkers, democrats, and Horthy-era dignitaries were secretly arrested and extrajudicially interned in domestic and foreign Gulags. Hungary maintains a universal health care system largely financed by government national health insurance. , In 2016, the Hungarian military had about 700 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including 100 HDF troops in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan, 210 Hungarian soldiers in Kosovo under command of KFOR, and 160 troops in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bilsky, Leora (2004): Transformative Justice: Israeli Identity on Trial (Law, Meaning, and Violence), University of Michigan Press. The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state. The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance. During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era (1947–1989), the entire 200,000 strong Southern Group of Forces was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops with nuclear weapons. Hungary has won three Olympic football titles, finished runners-up in the 1938 and 1954 FIFA World Cups, and third in Euro 1964. The capital is a significant economic hub, classified as an Alpha – world city in the study by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network and it is the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe as GDP per capita in the city increased by 2.4 per cent and employment by 4.7 per cent compared to the previous year in 2014. törvény. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi (Οὔγγροι). According to the WWF, the territory of Hungary belongs to the ecoregion of Pannonian mixed forests. These seven regions constitute NUTS' second-level units of Hungary. The world's first institute of technology was founded in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary in 1735, its legal successor is the University of Miskolc.  His first-born son, Saint Stephen I, became the first King of Hungary after defeating his pagan uncle Koppány, who also claimed the throne. This article is about the country. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain very popular, especially Omega, which has followings in Germany and beyond as well as in Hungary. Some Jews were able to escape, but most were either deported to concentration camps, where they were killed, or murdered in Hungary by Arrow Cross members. Also, the national teams have produced some surprise successes such as beating Euro 2004 winner Greece 3–2 and 2006 FIFA World Cup winner Italy 3–1. Lajos Kossuth – a famous journalist at that time – emerged as leader of the lower gentry in the Parliament. The Antall government's austerity measures proved unpopular, and the Communist Party's legal and political heir, the Socialist Party, won the subsequent 1994 elections. Béla Lajta initially adopted Lechner's style, subsequently drawing his inspiration from English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the Egyptian style, he finally arrived at modern architecture.  (Later research has suggested that this 9th-century Moravia may have been located on the southern Morava River in present-day northern Serbia.) The Hungarian-born Soros founded Central European University in 1991. The troops raised in the Kingdom of Hungary spent little time defending the actual territory of Hungary, with the exceptions of the Brusilov Offensive in June 1916, and a few months later, when the Romanian army made an attack into Transylvania, both of which were repelled. The Soviet leadership selected Mátyás Rákosi to front the Stalinization of the country, and Rákosi de facto ruled Hungary from 1949 to 1956. On the Italian front, the Austro-Hungarian army made no progress against Italy after January 1918. On the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 50 percent of its total use, followed by gross fixed capital formation with 22 percent and government expenditure with 20 percent. In the Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about one hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceilings, and motifs on the front wall..  The Hungarian is the 57th-largest economy in the world (out of 188 countries measured by IMF) with $265.037 billion output, and ranks 49th in the world in terms of GDP per capita measured by purchasing power parity. , Hungary is a land of thermal water. The general requirement for university is the Matura. CityLine Hungary Hungarian charter airline with its hub at Budapest Ferihegy International Airport. He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the 1873 World Fair in Vienna, then at the 1878 World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix. To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the Carpathians in a wide band near the Slovakian border. , The key actor of research and development in Hungary is the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NRDI Office), which is a national strategic and funding agency for scientific research, development and innovation, the primary source of advice on RDI policy for the Hungarian Government, and the primary RDI funding agency.  Under his rule, in 1479, the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the Battle of Breadfield. This made Artúr Görgey surrender in August 1849. The Legényes is a men's solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the Kalotaszeg region of Transylvania. Most of the Turks then withdrew with their loot. In 1102 he is accepted as the Croatian king. In 2009 Hungary, due to strong economic difficulties, had to request the help of the IMF for about €9 billion.  Rezső Kasztner, one of the leaders of the Hungarian Aid and Rescue Committee, bribed senior SS officers such as Adolf Eichmann to allow some Jews to escape. As of 2018, twelve Hungarian scientists have been recipients of a Nobel Prize. In comparison, of the total army, Hungary's loss ratio was more than any other nations of Austria-Hungary. The Mongol invasion: the last Árpád kings, Royal Hungary and the rise of Transylvania, Revolution, counterrevolution, and the regency, 1918–45, Financial crisis: the rise of right radicalism. All county seats except Budapest are urban counties.  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