Awolalu, J. O. I was curious to get a life path reading and to know which Orisha “ruled my head” after a friend had had a similar reading done. Get a non-plagiarized Paper written by our Professionals. Now this confession is enough to freak out a lot of Nigerians, who absurdly believe that Ifá, a deity of divination would demand a human sacrifice. As a young boy, Malidoma Somé was abducted by Jesuit missionaries and made to undergo indoctrination into European ways of thought and worship in colonial Burkina Faso. With such uniformed details, therefore, there was wide assumption that all ATRs are primitive and same in their nature. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. Conflict is a universal phenomenon that is inevitable in human interaction. Therefore, the society played a crucial unifying factor to the dreams and beliefs of a person (Johnson, 2004). Premium Essay Writing Services is the ideal place for homework help or essay writing service. John Mbiti, a prominent Christian theologian from Kenya who helped debunk entrenched ideas that traditional African religions were primitive, â¦ Pentecostalism has much in common with the way indigenous spiritualities are practiced, with its heavy emphasis on exorcisms and speaking in tongues. Africa is a massive continent with diverse religious traditions, to the extent that within the same tradition there have been variations. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. Diseases take millions of lives every year in Africa because of a lack â¦ We have been in the writing business since 2009, and have served many students who have kept coming back and even referred others to us. Myth: Slavery is a product of capitalism. African indigenous faith systems became “primitive”, uncivilised, a necessary evil that had to be dealt with, and an inferior system that had to be done away with. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic, and traditional medicine. Now a diviner in hisDagara tradition, Somé wrote about the brainwashing he received at the seminary and the difficult journey finding his way back to his people’s traditions in Of Water and the Spirit. The lengths to which some missionaries went in their bid to “civilise” people they saw as inferior still astonishes. As âAmmaâ, among the Dogon people, or âOludamareâ among the Yoruba. The rationale is to designate African traditional religion as inferior to Islam and Christianity. Retrieved from http://organizations.uncfsu.edu/ncrsa/journal/v04/johnson_understanding.htm. Due to the disdain and fear surrounding indigenous faiths, I tell very few Nigerians that I have consulted with a babalawo, a diviner of the Yoruba deity Ifa. Okay, so it is a little weird starting out a list with âOther,â but bear with meâI am starting out with the less popular religions and working up toward the most widespread faiths. Since ATRs are culturally dependent, the society played a very crucial role in propagating them. Will Covid-19 vaccines bring life back to normal in 2021? With religion being the sensitive topic that it is, one close to the hearts of many African people, it is not always easy to have a sensible discussion about the problematic ways in which Eurocentric Christianity and Islam reached the African continent. This construct is false entirely since Mbiti contends that many people in Africa were already aware of existence of God and referred to him as Ngai, Mungu and Unkulunkulu among others (Johnson, 2004). This lack of knowledge as well as understanding of essentials has led to burgeoning of myths on African Traditional Religions (ATR). of religion as concern with spiritual beings in discussing religious norms and ideals for women, and move to a more extensive consid-eration of ritual in my analysis of religious organization and practice. The three main religious traditionsâAfrican traditional religion, Christianity, and Islamâconstitute the triple religious heritage of the African continent. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. The word idol is used to describe the object which is an emblem of that which is worshipped by the Africans. However, this is a wrong ATR connotation because believers have a Supreme Being to whom is given all reverence. From the early colonial period till today, misinformation about African indigenous spiritualities is spread and believed as truth. For this reason, the disciples of Taylor conclude that African religion is said to be polytheistic, meaning that Africans serve several gods which further puts African religion at the bottom of religious evolution. Most religions can be descriâ¦ There have also been constant debates on the existence of religion in Africa before missionaries work in the continent. Are our efforts to deal with the problem in accord with research findings? 3 Leo Frobenius, The Voice of Africa, Vol. Lack of proper understanding of the embodiment led to creation of myths plethora in regards to ATRs. Am happy now having completed the very difficult assignment, I appreciate help on the assignment. The same ATR effect remains solid even in their modern Christian worship (Johnson, 2004). What population is affected by the problem? Even so, while it can be true that some ATRs make reverence and reference to things, such as belief in sanctity of rivers and trees, it would be right to bundle all ATRs as animistic. Headquartered in Menomonee Falls, WI, the chain has over 1,160 stores in 49 states across the US. © Copyright 2009-2019. Christianity must recognise and study the theological basis of the traditional African belief in the existence of mystical and mysterious forces. All African Countries Are Poor. However, what are some of the myths and real practices that have overshadowed the myths? In considering traditional sub-Saharan African religious systems for study, one is confronted not only by the multiplicity of potential By Jacob K. Olupona. A few months ago at a work meeting, the topic of ritual killings and idol worship came up and a colleague boldly objected to a idea that ritual killings had been traditionally done by Nigerians in pre-colonial times. Most missionaries strongly believed that they were saving Africans from satanic oppression and ignorance, an idea that most post-colonial Africans have internalised. Therefore under such circumstances, true ATR representation has been a daunting task leading to widespread ATR mythology. In the 1900s, “traditional African religions still claimed the loyalty of majority of the population of sub-Saharan Africa”. The mere existence of people like Kwaku Bonsam and websites that offer the West African equivalent of Western zodiac signs shows the ways in which indigenous priests are adapting their centuries-old traditions to the modern world and resisting the grand narrative of Christianity and Islam. As a result, it leads to increase in plethora of spirits (Johnson, 2004). While idolatry means worshipping false gods or unnatural beings, ATRs worship the objects mainly as symbols and emblems and not as means to themselves. Additionally, in relevance to Christianity, God is spirit and should as a result be worshipped in truth and spirit. ATR on the other hand also has divinities that do not match Supreme Being in file and rank. The traditional religions of Africa are human in the deepest sense, because they focus on people and their everyday problems. This kind of contention strikes off the fact that Africans did not have religious belief and knowledge in God before arrival of European missionaries (Johnson, 2004). Each group of individuals as well as tribe had their religious form over time in response to various life experiences and situations. continue to have on the way Africans worship, traditional African religions still claimed the loyalty of majority of the population of sub-Saharan Africa, uncivilised, a necessary evil that had to be dealt with, and an inferior system that had to be done away with, every form of worship in Africa was of the devil, as a way to reinforce the notion that Africans and African civilisations were lesser, human sacrifices were part and parcel of pre-colonial faith systems, Discussions about the modern “innovations” in African cultures and religious practices, a life path reading and to know which Orisha “ruled my head”, Pentecostal priest for soliciting the help of his deities, offer the West African equivalent of Western zodiac signs, Childhood sex education reduces risky sexual behaviour: a Nigerian case study. Therefore, the ATRs are not certainly idolatrous. They are referred to as Nzambiâa Mpungu Tulendo in Kikongo, the central language of the Bantu-Kongo people, which is translates as the âeverything in everythingâ. The paper was complete as fast. The divinities are consequently represented by items and have traceable origins. In the book, Somé writes “religious colonialism tortures the soul. The different African countries are made up of rural and urban regions. Correcting Misconceptions About African Traditional Religions. The animal that Africans worshipped according to Taylor had the ability of leaving one body and taking over other bodies such as men and things. That these rituals are done with the main aim of making money should hint at their true capitalist nature. Further ATR myths have also referred to the religions as heathen, paganism and magical. In line with the thoughts of Taylor, ATR as animism is the fact that Africans are polytheistic. Lecturer is always on our head but was pleased with my paper. Earlier researchers and missionaries portrayed them often as primitive and barbaric and ridiculed them [I give many examples in my book: White Fathers in Colonial Central Africa - a Critical Examination of V.Y. African indigenous spiritualities in the 21st century To each his own. Once again, thanks a lot, The paper was so involving but am happy it is done. ... those misconceptions and misrepresentations of the facts presented by Eurocentric scholars. This lack of knowledge as well as understanding of essentials has led to burgeoning of myths on African Traditional Religions (ATR). If you are looking for affordable, high quality & non-plagiarized papers, click on the BUTTON below to place your ORDER. The Economy, Monetary Policy, and Monopolies, “Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment”, “Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers”, “Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohlâs”, Sample Sociology Paper on Saving Capitalism, Criminal Justice: Sample Essay on Why Children Join Gangs, Religious Studies on Contribution of Christianity to Western civilization, Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment, Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers, Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohlâs. There are few religions as globally misunderstood as African traditional religions. It was not enough to insist that every form of worship in Africa was of the devil, this was tied to African cultures as a way to reinforce the notion that Africans and African civilisations were lesser when compared to that of Europeans. Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than “voodoo”) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African faith systems believe in the concept of one God above all other divinities and deities, who function much as a pantheon of saints. Proof of this is in the ritual killings that keep on happening in this modern age whether it is 100 graves dug up in Benin Republic or albinos being killed for their body parts in Tanzania. 3 And similar to this was the dialogue that took place between Edwin Smith, who had gone out as a missionary to Africa, and Emil Ludwig, an eminent biographer. Traditional African religion is very popular and arrived here with our North and West African ancestors. Healthcare’s ‘toxic’ working conditions exposed in student’s documentary, Morocco on high Covid-19 alert as football continues, South African universities need to know why students’ suicide risk is so high. Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than âvoodooâ) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African â¦ Thinking About Religion, 4. The resulting video (below) was uploaded on Youtube, thus exposing the ways in which indigenous faiths influence the way modern Africans worship. Even though Westerners revealed the idea that ATRs operated at a personal level, the society created focal ATRs beliefs and practices. It creates an atmosphere of fear, uncertainty and general suspicion. In nearby Benin Republic, a country where majority of the population hold on to their indigenous faith, Voudou, Aligbonon Akpochihala hosts his own radio show and appears on television to dispel misconceptions about the Voudou faith. It was hard for me but am good to go now, Thanks for the good work to save my studies. The keepers of the age-old traditions are staking their claim for credibility despite the many challenges they face. However, they were generally forbidden from practicing their religion. Even so, the construct is false because all ATR belong to a specific group of individuals where all ATRs evolved. The most important thing is that in the new South Africa religion and spirituality are used to create greater understanding and harmony rather than to divide people as was done in the past. Sunni Muslims make up approximatelyâ¦ Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/347555444?accountid=1611 In this article, it is clear that antitrust benefits the business when they enhance regulation of free markets. I couldn’t help but compare his very modern and professional service to the recurring stereotype of wild-eyed witch doctors providing consultations in a darkened room that is popular in Nollywood and even Western depictions of any African spiritual system. Among the many easy writing service providers, we are the most preferred.This is no self-proclamation but a fitting testament from our customers. Sometimes misrepresentation lack understanding of traditional African religious practices a fact that made the historians and scholars to record misleading details on ATR thus, leading to growth of religious inaccuracies. There are also quite a few irreligious peopleâagnostics and atheisâ¦ In this regard therefore, Africans worshipping piece of wood will not in any case despair if the wood gets lost based on the fact that wood is just a beingâs representation and is served as a solid personification of goddess that is represented in its presence (Awolalu, 1976, p. 8). Voodoo Practitioners Make A Pact With The Devil. Religion creates a significant part of African life. Many of mythical contention have also been in the effect that European missionaries brought about the knowledge of God to Africa as well as religion. He named himself “Bonsam” which in Twi means “devil” thus knowingly poking fun at the continued demonisation of indigenous faith systems. In keeping up with the generation of Pentecostal pastors in Ghana who use the media to deride Ghanaian traditional religion as devil worship in the continued colonial tradition, Kwaku Bonsam uses similar tactics to strike back. We ignore the influences that these systems have had and continue to have on the way Africans worship and conduct their everyday lives. Traditional/Indigenous African religions are the traditional beliefs and practices of African people including the various traditional religions and customs. Little known is the history of indigenous children across the world who were kidnapped, forced into seminaries and taught not only Christianity but also the superiority of Western culture and language in the hopes that they would go ahead as agents of European authority and “civilise” their own people. The myth that Africans in diaspora experienced slavery erased their ATR ties and holds no water to Africans because they continued with their practices through the 19th and 20th century. Many traditional African religions are based on guiding principles that are unfathomable to foreigners, more specifically those with interests such as historians and scholars. Sometimes misrepresentation lack understanding of traditional African religious practices a fact that made the historians and scholars to record misleading details on ATR thus, â¦ In a world where everyone is looking to be rich and wealthy, indigenous African spiritualities are not exempt from being corrupted by those who would do anything to get rich. ATR faithful are also aware of divinities limitations, a fact that is not true of the Supreme God who is not represented by anything and owes his existence to nobody (Awolalu, 1976, p.9). With African Traditional Religions you must be much more careful about speaking about belief systems in the same way, because Africans will actually tolerate quite a wide variety of beliefs as long as it supports the same rituals or certain rituals or ritualistic explanations of why this is being done or why this is being believed. ANTITRUST IN AN ERA OF MARKET FAILURE.Â Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy,Â 33(2), 557-606. Â In this case therefore, the argument is that missionaries did not bring God to Africa, instead God brought them to Africans. While there are similarities in the manner and place of worship in reference to Supreme Being and divinities, each ATR within its center had a signature of practice and belief ascribed only by a group of people. Well, it â¦ It is erroneous to assume that it is after Africans migrate to the Diaspora that they â¦ What is African Traditional Religion? Here, Jacob K. Olupona, author of African Religions: A Very Short Introduction shares an interesting list of 15 facts on African religions. Unlike the “primitive” witch doctor of popular imagination, Kwaku Bonsam has adopted children, opened a free elementary school and runs a cattle farm. Rather than viewing them as the complex systems they are, we have debased them to nothing but a series of sacrifices. Africa is A Country. In bringing modernization and Christianity to Africa, many westerners had the notion that conversion from ATR would follow similar process as that in western religion. …, Continue reading “Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers”, SWOT Analysis of Kohlâs Established in 1962, Kohlâs Corporation is an American company, which operates family-oriented department stores. The cultural ATRs embodiment further discusses the difficulty in adoption of ATR by people in Europe and America because of the most significant beliefs and ideas inATR are alien in regards to their geographical and alien environs. Even so, ATRs have a lot more deeper roots in a personalâs tribal setting thus making it hard to ease in implementation of other cultural and religious beliefs that are far eliminated from personal traditional beliefs (Johnson, 2004). Kwaku Bonsam regularly uses social media for divination purposes, and he also appears on television talk shows. When Ludwig got to 1, Hutchison, 1913, p.xll. Thanks a lot, Just wonna say thanks for attending to my assignment guyz. This conception followed the same path that claimed that all ATRs are the same. Whether it is being wrongly labelled voodoo, juju or witchcraft, indigenous African faith systems tend to be associated with darkness, animal and human sacrifices, violence and general backwardness. I feared penalty from professor, but am now safe, Religion and expression of faith in the work place, Have been ordering from as many people online but never gotten A in my career, thanks for your assistance, Your write was fast on the assignment and will now be able to beat deadline. These so-called ritual killings have attained the status of urban legends in countries like Nigeria where the 10% of Nigerians who adhere to traditional beliefs have to keep their faith secret or risk being labelled as enablers of human sacrifice. A person therefore had to be born within a people to undertake and comprehend the peopleâs religious practices. Among Catholics , sex of any kind is taboo for clergy - priests, nuns, and monks â but not for general believers. Africans Speak African. Will reach you with more assignments, Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis III. African religions - African religions - Mythology: In African oral cultures, myths embody philosophical reflections, express values, and identify moral standards. This policy aids clients to access products cheaply and in the correct quantity. Africa is ridden with Disease. Fact: Slavery is older than the â¦ Similarly, few Africans had published accurate ATR representation books while the published have not been circulating according to reports by historians and scholars. It was through email that my friend introduced me to him, his service was paid for through his website, and after consulting with Ifá, he sent me my life path reading in pdf format. Â Western scholars had in many cases referred ATR to as a form of idolatry worshipping only objects including rocks, sun, wood and trees. In a fascinating case, Kwaku Bonsam stormed into a church with a camera close by, to expose a Pentecostal priest for soliciting the help of his deities and keeping an idol on the church environs. To the modern African who distrusts these age-old traditions, indigenous faith systems can be nothing but evil. This belief has a theological basis. That is why we have freewill, and regardless of whether we choose to acknowledge that a living God exists or not, and regardless of how we choose to worship Him, directly or through deities, we will all be eventually accountable. The worshipped objects as a result, have meanings beyond themselves. Many Western historians and scholars have a result perpetuated many of the ARRs myths. The online tests conducted during the course were instrumental in the assessment of what was learnt by the trainees. Understanding African Traditional Religion. Social Analysis Problem description How complete is our knowledge of the problem? 2 E. B. Idowu, African Traditional Religion, S.C.M., 1973, p.87. Yet religious colonialism on Africans is the main reason that most of us have come to view our own indigenous faith systems as epitomes of evil. African Traditional Religion is referred to the diverse beliefs that are included in various ethnic regions in Africa.The religion is characterized mainly by: 1.Supreme Being The African societies and ethnic communities believed in a supreme being who had different names for different communities.The people worshiped this God through singing,offering sacrifices,dancing,dedications â¦ Some religions (as well as cultures in general) consider various sexual practices taboo. Although the slaves accepted Roman Catholicism, they did not give up their traditional beliefs either. 1. The theory of Taylor further regarded the African religion as quite primitive because ATR faithful believe in presence of spirits in every object. Discussions about the modern “innovations” in African cultures and religious practices are almost nonexistent, so most of us never consider that the growth of Pentecostal churches is encouraging witchcraft related fears or that market forces are central to today’s beliefs in witchcraft. The worst thing is that it uses the local people to enforce itself”. It is a true statement of fact â¦ But to say that the African Traditional Religion is animistic would be incorrect and racial. Indigenous faith systems were competition to those missionaries who wanted their religions to be established in Africa, thus they were essentially subjected to a smear campaign. Christianity denotes the existence of God in the trinity of God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. Size Defining characteristics Distribution What theory or theories of human behavior are explicit or, more likely, implicit …, Continue reading “Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment”, Challenges Facing Financial Managers Devlin, A. Additionally, ATRs carried African people embodiment. Besides all religions have astonishment and orientation to the spirit world. Most of these stores are in the Midwest and West, where the company has a strong presence with expansion plans …, Continue reading “Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohlâs”, Report on CITI Training Summary Report on CITI Training Course It is always very important that learner evaluate the lessons learnt during a training course. Poverty is a problem for many African countries, and it will be one â¦ These rituals, otherwise called witchcraft, are said to exist due to the superstitious nature of Africans, which arises from traditional beliefs. These words are still relevant today. A 1685 law, for instance, prohibited the practice of African religions, and required all masters to Christianize their slaves within eight days of their arrival in Haiti. Commercialized by E.B Taylor, an English anthropologist and propagated by other scholars, the first myth considers ATR as animism. 8 Misconceptions of Various Religions. Religious colonialism is the lesser-discussed arm of colonialism itself, but its psychological effects have been as long-lasting. As stated earlier, the belief in the impersonal (mystical) powers is dominant and pervasive among traditional Africans. To get around these restrictions, the slaves started to equate their gods with Catholic saints.
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